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Practical summary of the Ghana Highway Code

Guidelines and rules of thumb to drive safely with special section for Road Signs

General

  • Keep your car in good condition:
    • regularly check lights, breaks, steering, tyres, direction indicators
    • regularly clean windscreen and windows
  • Wear seatbelts
  • When on a motercycle, scooter or moped, always wear a safety helmet
  • Know all road signs

Defensive driving

Your SPEEDYour DISTANCE
30 kmh15 meter
50 kmh25 meter
70 kmh50 meter
90 kmh75 meter
120 kmh100 meter
  • Signal about what you plan to do
  • Use your mirrors
  • Keep to the speed limit, especially to 50 kmh (km per hour) in town
  • Keep your distance to the car before you:
  • Mind pedestrians, cyclists and animals along the road
  • Give way to ambulance, fire engines or police when their blue lights flash or two-tone horns sound
  • Respect limits in using of alcohol or medicine

Emergency

  • Control your car in emergency situations:
    • if a tyre blows, do NOT slam brakes; control your steering wheel, steer right ahead and slowly stop
    • if a rearwheel skid happens, do NOT slam brakes: turn your steering wheel in the direction of the skid, as the car straightens out, straighten the front wheels also
    • if the accelaration pedal jams, turn off ignition and brake to a stop, leaving your car in gear !
  • In case of misbehaviour of other road users: warn with horn and with flashlights, pull to the right as far as possible

Lines and lanes

  • Keep right when you plan no special action
  • Single broken line:
    you may cross for overtaking, when the road is clear
  • Double solid line:
    you may NOT cross in any circumstance
  • Mixed line:
    you may cross for overtaking, when the dotted line is on your side and the road is clear
  • Dual carriageway (motorway only):
    • keep right, when you have moderate speed
    • go to the left for overtaking only
  • Three-lane carriageway (motorway only):
    • keep right, when you have moderate speed
    • stay in the middle, when slower vehicles are on your right
    • go to the left for overtaking only
  • Choose your lane when turning left or right: follow road markings and arrows in time !
  • Do not enter areas marked with yellow diagonal stripes

Overtaking

  • Check if the road is clear using your mirrors, signal before acting
  • Overtake quickly and move back to the right
  • Do NOT accelerate while being overtaken
  • Give way to cars coming to you from the opposite direction
  • On motorways never overtake on the right side
  • Do NOT overtake:
    • when coming to a junction, a crossing, a corner or bend, a bridge or a hill
    • when the road narrows
    • when you might hinder another car
    • when you would have to violate rules for lines and lanes
    • when there is a "no overtaking" road sign

Road Junctions

  • Look left, look right, look left again before crossing or turning; use your mirrors to double-check
  • On a level crossing, give way to a car from the left
  • On a priority junction:
    • when you have NO priority, stop at the "stop" or "give way" road sign, wait for a safe gap in the traffic before moving on
    • when you have priority, make sure other road users give way to you before moving on
    • when a mandatory road sign is present, follow indicated direction
  • When controlled by traffic lights, follow the lights, but make sure other road users give way before moving on at a green light
  • When controlled by a police officer, follow his/her directions at all times

Roundabouts

  • turning right: stay to the rightside of the road or choose the outer lane if two lanes are present (yellow arrows)
  • going forward: you are free to choose the inside (blue arrows) or the outside (yellow arrows) of the roundabout, but once on the inside you should not turn right anymore (red arrows); likewise, when on the outside you should not go left (red arrows)
  • going left: use the inside of the roundabout or choose the inner lane if two lanes are present (blue arrows)
  • When approaching: give way to a car from the left
  • When on the roundabout follow directions for turning right, going straight forward and going left:

Reversing

  • Make sure no one is behind you, particularly pedestrians and children
  • When you cannot see clearly: get a guide
  • Never reverse from a side road into a main road

Lights

  • Use headlamps where there is no street lighting
  • Use dipped headlamps in build-up areas
  • Dip your lamps when meeting other cars
  • If you are dazzled by other cars, slow down
  • Use headlamps when there is mist

Waiting and parking

  • Do NOT park where
    • there is a prohibitory road sign
    • it would be difficult for others to see clearly
    • it would be a danger to others
    • it would hold up traffic or make the road narrow
    • emergency vehicles stop
  • Take care when opening a door when leaving, use your handbrake, turn off lights and always lock your car

Breakdowns and accidents

  • If you have a breakdown:
    • get your car off the road
    • flash the amber direction indicators
    • place the red reflecting triangle 50 meters before your car
  • Accidents:
    • if there is no help: give first aid
    • if there is help available: pass slowly and follow indications of police
    • Motorways

      • Joining:
        • When approaching from a road on the right (slip road): give way to traffic already on the motorway, accelerate in the extra lane, join the inside lane when you have the same speed as the traffic
      • Leaving:
        • When leaving by a road on the right: watch for the signs about your turn-off point, give a clear signal, get into the right lane and join the slip road in time
        • If you miss your turn-off point, carry on until the next one, do NOT reverse or turn back

      Railway level crossings

      • Keep your distance at any level crossing
      • Do not cross a railway once the red lights have started to flash
      • At crossings without gates: always stop, look both ways, listen carefully if there is no train coming
      • If you are just crossing when the red lights start flashing: keep going